Internal Medicine

Today, alongside scientific developments, the technological advancements enable early diagnosis and initiation of the right treatment with the help of laboratory tests (blood, urine, faeces, etc.), radiological imaging (X-ray, MR, Tomography, Ultrasound), endoscopic procedures (colonoscopy, cystoscopy, gastroscopy, etc.), bone density measurement, ECG, and Echocardiography. The Department of Internal Medicine undertakes any and all kinds of diagnosis and treatment procedures of adult patients above 15 years of age 24/7, and meticulously and carefully monitors the patients with chronic diseases (DM, Hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, renal failure, etc.). It also examines and monitors the patients with no particular complaints but carrying the risk of a certain disease.

Diseases diagnosed and treated by the Department of Internal Medicine;

*Lower and upper respiratory tract diseases:
Respiratory tract infections are contagious diseases common in winter and can be grouped into two categories, i.e. lower respiratory tract infections and upper respiratory tract infections. Infections of the upper respiratory tract are usually called a common cold and affect the nose and throat areas. Seen particularly in winter and causing high body temperature, cold epidemics are a frequently diagnosed group of diseases by internal medicine specialists. Lower respiratory tract infections, however, are more serious since they affect bronchi, bronchioles, and the lungs.

*Infectious diseases:
In addition to upper respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis, pharyngitis, and sinusitis, many other infectious diseases are also in the Department of Internal Medicine’s area of interest, such as urinary tract infections, skin infections, hepatitis, diarrhoea, infections of the bones and joints, parasitic diseases, sexually transmitted infections, influenza, and brucellosis. An Internal Medicine Specialist has required knowledge and skills to diagnose and plan the treatment for these diseases.

An abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries is called hypertension. This high blood pressure damages the heart, brain, kidneys, and eyes. A healthy adult should have a systolic blood pressure below 120 mmHg, and a diastolic blood pressure below 80 mmHg. The Department of Internal Medicine monitors and treats patients with high blood pressure to prevent damage to vital organs.

The most common type of diabetes is Type 2 Diabetes in adults. Type 1 Diabetes, on the other hand, is more common in early ages, and paediatric patients even. The Department of Internal Medicine plans treatment and follow-up of all the Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes patients. It also takes all the necessary precautions to prevent organ injury while planning the patients’ diet. Furthermore, Internal Medicine Specialists manage and oversee the prescription and reporting of all the medications used for the treatment of diabetes.

*Thyroid disorders
TSH secreted by the brain stimulates the thyroid gland which in turn synthesizes the hormones T3 and T4 that are very valuable for the body. Thyroid hormones secreted by the thyroid gland in the neck region have many important functions, e.g. regulating the metabolic rate in particular. If the thyroid gland is underactive or overactive, this leads to many negative effects on the metabolism. While an underactive thyroid causes weight gain, oedema, hair loss, low-pitched voice, constipation, etc., and overactive thyroid causes excessive sweating, palpitation, weight loss, diarrhoea, etc. The Department of Internal Medicine successfully diagnosis and treats all kinds of thyroid disorders.

*Increased blood lipids such as cholesterol and triglyceride
An unhealthy and unbalanced diet causes weight gain and when this is combined with genetic predisposition, the triglyceride and cholesterol levels go up, which in turn increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The Department of Internal Medicine assesses the blood tests of the patients, plans their treatment, and gives them dietary advice.

*Digestive system disorders such as liver, stomach and gall bladder diseases
Liver disorders (hepatitis, fatty liver, cirrhosis, cysts, etc.), gastrointestinal disorders (gastroesophageal reflux, gastritis, stomach ulcer, colitis, etc.), and gall bladder disorders (gallstones, gall bladder sludge, inflammation of the gall bladder, etc.) are widely common diseases within the area of specialty of the Internal Medicine clinics. Internal Medicine Specialists manage the treatment of these diseases, such as medication, diet, and lifestyle changes.

*Lung diseases
Shortness of breath and many other respiratory diseases affecting most patients’ social lives, such as Asthma, Chronic Bronchitis, Pneumonia, and COPD are diagnosed and treated by the Department of Internal Medicine.

*Kidney disorders
Unwanted molecules resulting from metabolism in the body are removed by the kidneys. Infections of the kidneys, renal calculi, renal cysts, and acute or chronic renal failure are serious health problems requiring early treatment and may lead to permanent organ injury otherwise. General treatment and monitoring/follow-up of the patients presenting with kidney-related complaints are carried out by the Internal Medicine outpatient clinics.

*Anaemia and other blood disorders
The most common cause of anaemia (lack of blood), a commonly seen condition encountered in blood count tests, is insufficient intake of iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid as a result of a poor and unbalanced diet. Additionally, Mediterranean anaemia, blood clotting disorders, haemorrhages, and bone marrow diseases are within the area of specialty of the Internal Medicine and treated by the Internal Medicine outpatient clinics.

*Rheumatic disorders
Soft tissue rheumatism (fibromyalgia), osteoarthritis (calcification), rheumatoid arthritis, gout, Behçet’s disease, familial Mediterranean fever, and acute joint rheumatisms are rheumatic disorders requiring patients to present to the Internal Medicine outpatient clinics for diagnosis and treatment. Patients, whose routine monitoring and follow-up and basic treatment are carried out by the Internal Medicine outpatient clinics, are referred to Rheumatology outpatient clinics if necessary.

*Musculoskeletal disorders
Muscle and joint pain affect most of the population. The Department of Internal Medicine undertakes the treatment and monitoring of the musculoskeletal pains in different body regions. Patients with bone loss (osteoporosis), commonly seen in elderly patients, should present to the Department of Internal Medicine as well for the treatment of the disease. Patients, whose routine monitoring and follow-up and basic treatment are carried out by the Internal Medicine outpatient clinics, are referred to physiotherapists or orthopaedists if necessary.